There's free access to digitised images of the 1930 United States Census on the Internet Archive.
The 1930 United States Census began on 2nd April 1930 for the general population of the United States (excluding Alaska, where it took place on 1st October 1929). It's the most recent United States Census for which personal data is available.
It provides address, names of persons and their relationship to head of household, gender, ethnicity (they said color or race), age, marital status, age at first marriage, college attendance, ability to read and write and speak English, birthplace, and birthplace of parents, language spoken before coming to the United States, year of immigration, whether naturalized, whether home is owned or rented, value or rent of home, whether home is a farm, whether there is a radio, occupation, industry, whether employed, whether a military veteran.
As these are just images, there's no search mechanism, though you could do a free search on Ancestry that will take you part of the way.
The Internet Archive makes the images available by state, access the 1930 United States Census state collection, and select the set you want.
More information on the 1930 United States Census and other United States censuses (1860 to 1920).